Do you know the danger of Hepatitis?

Hepatitis is a liver inflammation caused by various factors. Factors that cause hepatitis disease, include viral infection, metabolic disorders, alcohol consumption, autoimmune diseases, complications results from other diseases, side effects from drugs consumption and the presence of parasites and bacteria in the liver. From those many factors, virus ranked the first as the cause of most Hepatitis disease.

There are five types of hepatitis caused by viruses, namely Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D virus, and Hepatitis E. In general, people with Hepatitis A & E may recover, but on the contrary, people with B & C can turn to chronic. Hepatitis D virus can only attack people who have been infected with Hepatitis B virus and can aggravate the condition of the patient.

Laboratory tests are needed to confirm the diagnosis of hepatitis due to hepatitis patients are often asymptomatic or do not show some typical symptoms.

Examination for acute hepatitis:
- GOT, GPT Enzymess
- Markers of Hepatitis A (IgM anti-Hav)
- Markers of Hepatitis B (HGsAg, Anti-HBC IgM)
- Markers of Hepatitis C (Anti HCV, HCV RNA)
- Markers of Hepatitis E (anti HEV IgM)

Examination for chronic hepatitis:
- Enzymes GOT, GPT
- Markers of Hepatitis B (HBsAg, HBe, Anti-HBc, anti HBe, HBV DNA)
- Markers of Hepatitis C (Anti HCV, HCV RNA)

Markers of immunity:
- Anti-HAV
- Anti-HBs


Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is classified as mild Hepatitis that rarely can cause death. Hepatitis A Virus (VHA = hepatitis A virus) spread through the feces of patients who transmitted through contaminated food and beverages (For example, fish or shellfish that came from human waste-contaminated water) and do not spread through sexual activity or blood transfusion.

Hepatitis A has an incubation period of 2 to 6 weeks after infection occurs, until later the patient showed some signs and symptoms of Hepatitis A disease.

1. Symptoms of Hepatitis A
In the first week, Patient who are afflicted will experience pain such as jaundice, fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, vomiting, dizziness and black-colored urine. Fever that occurs is a continuous fever, different from other fever such as: dengue fever, tuberculosis fever, thypoid fever, etc..

2. Handling and Treatment of Hepatitis A
Patients who show first week symptoms of hepatitis A as jaundice, fatigue and so on, are expected to lessen their activity and immediately visit the nearest health facility for symptoms treatment such as analgesics / antipyretics drugs to reduce fever and dizziness, vitamins to increase immunity and appetite as well as drugs that reduce nausea and vomiting.

While this steps can be taken as a preventive actions: wash hands thoroughly, and immunization especially recommended for someone who lives near the patient.


Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is categorized as one of the most dangerous infectious diseases in the world. This disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that attacks the liver and cause acute or chronic inflammation of the liver. Similar to Hepatitis C, both diseases can become chronic and eventually leads to liver cancer. The transmission of Hepatitis B is through the exchange of body fluids or through blood contact with the people infected with Hepatitis B.

There are few other things that became the transmission patterns such as, transmission from mother to baby during childbirth, sexual intercourse, blood transfusions, needles, and shared use of personal hygiene equipment (toothbrushes, towels). Hepatitis B can affect anyone, but usually at higher risk for those in productive age.

1. Symptoms of Hepatitis B
Specific signs and symptoms of acute hepatitis B are fever, abdominal pain and yellow (especially the white area of eye / sclera). But this signs and symptoms usually do not appear for people with chronic hepatitis B that is why this can cause higher risk of transmission to others.

2. Handling and Treatment of Hepatitis B
In order to establish the diagnosis of Hepatitis B-suspected patients there will be needed to held blood examination. Once the diagnosis is established as Hepatitis B, the treatment of hepatitis B can be by oral and by injection.

Preventive steps to avoid Hepatitis B disease is a vaccine, especially in people at high risk of this virus, like people with unhealthy sex habit (change partner / homosexual), health workers (nurses and doctors) and those who lives in the areas with many cases of Hepatitis B.


Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by Hepatitis C virus (HCV). The process of transmission is through blood contact {transfusions, needles (contaminated), insect bite people infected and bite others around them}. Sometimes Hepatitis C patients do not show an obvious symptom, but in patients with chronic hepatitis C can cause damage/death of liver cells and detected as liver cancer. 85% of hepatitis C infection cases can becomes chronic and slowly damages the liver in years.

1. Symptoms of Hepatitis C
Hepatitis C patients often show no symptoms, although the infection has occurred for many years. But some vague symptoms include: fatigue, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, dark-color urine and yellow color on the skin or eyes called "jaundice" (rare case). In some cases, elevation of liver enzyme may be found in the urine, however, the liver enzymes can be fluctuated or even normal in some of the Hepatitis C patient.

2. Handling and Treatment of Hepatitis C
The goal of treatment of Hepatitis C is to eliminate the virus from your body as early as possible to prevent the development of deteriorating and end-stage of this liver disease. Treatment in Hepatitis C patients require longer periods of time and for certain patients it can not be helped, therefore it is necessary to handle this disease from the initial stage.


Hepatitis D

Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) or delta virus is a unique virus, it is an incomplete virus and require Hepatitis B virus for viral replication. Transmission of this virus is through sexual contact, needles and blood transfusions. Symptoms of hepatitis D varies, it can appear as mild symptoms (co-infection) or very progressive.


Hepatitis E

Symptoms is similar to Hepatitis A, rheumatic fever, fatigue, loss of appetite and abdominal pain. This Disease will heal itself (self-limited), except in case of pregnancy, especially third trimester, can be deadly. Transmission happens through feces-contaminated water.


Source:
- http://www.infeksi.com/articles.php?lng=in&pg=1264&id=7
- http://www.medicinenet.com/viral_hepatitis/article.htm
- http://labtestsonline.org/understanding/conditions/hep/